Ferroalloys in the development of steels

Ferroalloys in the development of steels


Old historical iron artifacts were made of almost pure iron containing only carbon as the alloying element. Properties like hardness, strength, and toughness were controlled by changing carbon content with the use of carburizing or decarburizing treatments, skills that had been mastered by blacksmiths. Historical “super steels” like “Damascus” steel and “Bulat” steel, which used Indian “Wootz” iron as a raw material, had amazing properties that are difficult to attain with modern technologies. Rather, in these steels the properties were based on complicated and sophisticated processing with a combination of high and low carbon source materials, which form a composite layered structure via forging-folding-welding tens and maybe hundreds of times (Reibold et al., 2006; Smith, 1988). Famous Japanese katana swords were made of Tatara iron, which contained some titanium within iron sand (ilmenite FeO$TiO2) and was typically used as an iron source. Also, traditional Japanese sword masters used a folding/forging technique. 

Chromium usage and properties

Chromium usage and properties


Chromium (Cr) is a brilliant, hard, refractory metal that melts at 1,857 °C (3,375 °F) and boils at 2,672 °C (4,842 °F). In the pure state it is resistant to ordinary corrosion, resulting in its application as an electroplated protective coating for other metals. It dissolves in nonoxidizing mineral acids but not in aqua regia or nitric acid, which passivate the metal.


Molybdenum usage and properties

Molybdenum usage and properties



Molybdenum, element number 42 of the periodic table, lies in the table's second transition series, in Group 6A between chromium and tungsten.

It has one of the highest melting temperatures of all the elements, yet unlike most other high-melting point metals, its density is only 25% greater than iron's. Its coefficient of thermal expansion is the lowest of the engineering materials, while its thermal conductivity exceeds all but a handful of elements. 

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